Spaniards needed auxiliaries serving as intermediaries between themselves and the much larger indigenous population. Family Some characteristics of the Iberian family differed from those found in the northern European family, and these were to have profound effects on relations between Iberians and indigenous people in the Americas.
Religion in Latin America[ edit ] Once in the New World, religion was still a prevalent issue which had to be considered in everyday life. The most obvious development was drastic demographic loss; in a process marked by periodic large epidemics, the population declined through the 16th century and on into the 17th century to a small fraction impossible to determine with precision of its precontact size.
At the same time, the Spanish royal government was seeking to find ways to increase its authority and in alliance with the Dominicans passed antiencomienda legislation. A History of Meddling. In addition, among those who attend church, higher percentages of Protestants than Catholics say their house of worship helps people find jobs or provides food and clothing for those in need.
These indigenous women retained many aspects of their traditional culture, but they had to learn good Spanish and master skills of Spanish home and family life. Addressing Poverty When asked what they think is the most important way for Christians to help the poor, Catholics in nearly every Latin American country point most often to charity work.
Rather, a strong solidarity prevailed, with the less successful flowing to the edges, the more successful back to the centre. These codices contained information about astrology, religion, Gods, and rituals. This is quite different to Brazil, where the native peoples were fewer in number, they were all dispersed around the continent and some were even practicing cannibalism.
For the Crown of Portugal, cannibalism was proof enough of their savagery so there were never any of the moral conundrums that the Spanish Crown fought over, when they preached Christianity on the one hand but then exhibited very unChristian behaviour on the other. Over a century before coming to the New World, the Portuguese already had set up a slave trade from west Africa and with fewer labourers to work the land, they diverted the slave trade to Brazil.
In the Andes too the indigenous social configuration was sufficiently close to the Spanish that it could serve as the basis for institutions such as the encomienda and parish. Favorable views of the new pontiff prevail across the region, with two-thirds or more of the population in most countries expressing a positive opinion of Pope Francis when the survey was conducted in late and early Women kept their maiden names after marriage, and the dowry given with them remained their own property.
The author pays close attention to films produced before the s and reflects on filmmaking in the region in comparison to the cinemas of Europe and the United States.
The status and duties of the commoners remained distinct from those of the nobles, who manned the local Hispanic-style government of the altepetl as they had filled offices in preconquest times.
In Chile, the United States played a key role in the coup led by General Augusto Pinochet which overthrew the democratically elected left-wing governent of Salvador Allende. It was along these routes that the Spanish and African populations concentrated, that social, economic, and governmental institutions were first created, then gelled and thickened, and that cultural and social change proceeded most quickly.
The Colombian government opposed this, but a Panamanian insurrection provided the United States with an opportunity. Differences among Catholics, Protestants and the religiously unaffiliated also are apparent on other social issues.
The size and benefits of the encomienda thus depended on the local indigenous situation: In the case of Nahuatlthe main language of central Mexico, the records have allowed the tracing of some basic lines of cultural and linguistic evolution in three stages. This elite looked towards other Catholic European models—in particular France—for a new Latin American culture, but did not seek input from indigenous peoples.
The Portuguese, on the other hand, partly because of Italian influence and partly because of their own geographic situation, had gone over thoroughly to the commercial-maritime tradition, emphasizing exploration, commerce, tropical crops, and coastal trading posts rather than full-scale occupation.
Direction of the governmental aspect of overseas life went to a royal council constituted much like others, the Council of the Indies as the Spaniards continued to call Americawhich issued decrees, heard appeals, and above all made appointments to high offices.
The late 16th and early 17th centuries saw much significant writing by indigenous authors, affected by both Spanish and indigenous traditions. The religious orders were a partial exception, rotating their members frequently; nevertheless, the most famous figures spent the bulk of their lives in larger centres.
These were oriented to gold-mining sites, which were soon at the base of the Spanish economy. The encomienda set up most of the main forms of Spanish-Indian contact. Popular insurrections were often influential and repressed: In a few countries — Brazil, the Dominican Republic and Nicaragua — Catholic-to-Protestant converts are significantly more likely than current Catholics to have changed their place of residence, rather than to have always lived in one place.
Other beliefs and practices vary widely from country to country. The encomienda was primarily a transaction between the encomendero, the cacique, and his people, but it could not stop there.
Thus indigenous labour obligations, channeled first through the encomienda and later through other arrangements, could supply a large stream of temporary workers. Among some sedentary groups, large political structures—confederations or empires—had come into existence, collecting tribute and engaging in trade over long distances.
The conquerors and colonists of Latin America also had a major impact on the population of Latin America. By the start of the century, the United States continued its interventionist attitude, which aimed to directly defend its interests in the region. At the conference, Obama held formal talks with Raul Castro, the current president of Cuba.
The Spanish-American city remained like this for centuries—Spanish in the centre, Indian on the edges, growing indefinitely without changing at the core, the site of an enormous process of cultural change. But Andean sociopolitical units were less contiguous territorially than those of central Mexico or Spain, and the population engaged in more seasonal migration.
Among the new institutions were those formalizing functions that had long been evolving, including the consulados, or merchant guilds, of Mexico City and Lima and tribunals of the Inquisition in the same places plus Cartagena on the Colombian coast.
Latin American Summary. Much of the history of 20th Century in Latin America has been characterized by political instability and turmoil. Nonetheless, some political trends may.
The History of Modern Latin America - The history of modern Latin America begins after the Second World War when the economic changes wrought by the war, namely the shift towards manufacturing and urbanization, produced political and diplomatic changes across the Americas. The Economic History of Latin America since Independence (2nd ed.
Cambridge UP, ) online Burns, E. Bradford, The Poverty of Progress: Latin America in the Nineteenth Century. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press Across Latin America, the Catholic church, so embedded in the region's social ethos, claimed the disease was a "divine intervention" to punish their gender and/or sexual orientation.
This analysis shows that a high degree of income disparity and poverty have a long history in the region. The paper ends with an analysis of the way in which Latin American intellectuals and scholars have seen the increasing economic and income gap with the United States and Canada.
12 Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) Economic Development of Latin America since Independence,1 I will offer a few reflections on the current situation and what it tells us about the world that awaits us, and set forth some brief conclusions about the Latin American development agenda.An analysis of the history of latin america