Processes of soil erosion

Many farmers have already made significant progress in dealing with soil erosion problems on their farms. If the tectonic action causes part of the Earth's surface e. Stream bank erosion damages adjoining agricultural lands, highways, railroads and bridges.

Soil erosion can be a slow process that continues relatively unnoticed or can occur at an alarming rate, causing serious loss of topsoil.

However, ridges left from tillage can dry out more quickly in a wind event, resulting in more loose, dry soil available to blow. Land degradation The warmer atmospheric temperatures observed over the past decades are expected to lead to a more vigorous hydrological cycle, including more extreme rainfall events.

Erosion and Transport

Added to Your Shopping Cart Add to cart Description A thorough look at physical properties of soil erosion Soil erosion has been responsible for billions of dollars of damage during the past thirty years, in the United States alone. The roots of the plants bind the soil together, and interweave with other roots, forming a more solid mass that is less susceptible to both water [51] and wind erosion.

Crop management systems that favour contour farming and strip-cropping techniques can further reduce the amount of erosion. Unsustainable agricultural practices are the single greatest contributor to the global increase in erosion rates.

The erosion of the stream banks by flowing water is known as stream bank erosion. Wave cut platform caused by erosion of cliffs by the sea, at Southerndown in South Wales Erosion of the boulder clay of Pleistocene age along cliffs of Filey Bay, Yorkshire, England Shoreline erosion, which occurs on both exposed and sheltered coasts, primarily occurs through the action of currents and waves but sea level tidal change can also play a role.

Aeolian processes Wind erosion is a major geomorphological force, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Fine-to-medium size soil particles are lifted a short distance into the air and drop back to the soil surface, damaging crops and dislodging more soil saltation. For example, in the Great Plainsit is estimated that soil loss due to wind erosion can be as much as times greater in drought years than in wet years.

Deflation is divided into three categories: Changes in soil structure and texture can increase the erodibility of the soil and expose the soil to further erosion by the forces of water and wind. The rate and magnitude of soil erosion by wind is controlled by the following factors: Reduced infiltration due to soil compaction, crusting or freezing increases the runoff.

Soil movement by rainfall raindrop splash is usually greatest and most noticeable during short-duration, high-intensity thunderstorms.

In extreme cases, tillage erosion includes the movement of subsurface soil. The effectiveness of any protective cover also depends on how much protection is available at various periods during the year, relative to the amount of erosive rainfall that falls during these periods.

Soil Erodibility Very fine soil particles are carried high into the air by the wind and transported great distances suspension. Solutions for Soil Erosion When it comes to finding solutions for soil erosion, the most useful techniques found tend to be those that emphasize reinforcing the structure of the soil, and reducing processes that affect it.

Soil erosion

Because forest canopies are usually higher than this, rain drops can often regain terminal velocity even after striking the canopy. This effect also occurs in freeze-drying of the soil surface during winter months. Soil erosion rates are expected to change in response to changes in climate for a variety of reasons.

Eroded soil, deposited down slope, inhibits or delays the emergence of seeds, buries small seedlings and necessitates replanting in the affected areas. Loss of fine sand, silt, clay and organic particles from sandy soils serves to lower the moisture-holding capacity of the soil.

As these changes occur, there is a tendency over time to an equilibrium condition—a balance between form and processes that depends upon… Water erosion Moving water is the most important natural erosional agent. Water Erosion The widespread occurrence of water erosion combined with the severity of on-site and off-site impacts have made water erosion the focus of soil conservation efforts in Ontario.

Raindrops falling on the land surface cause detachment of soil particles which are subsequently transported -away with the flowing water. Also, wind erosion can create adverse operating conditions, preventing timely field activities.

Textural changes can in turn affect the water-holding capacity of the soil, making it more susceptible to extreme conditions such as drought.

What is Soil Erosion?

One of the major concerns regarding soil erosion is that it can permanently affect the land, which can be devastating for farmers or those with agricultural pursuits. More compacted soils will have a larger amount of surface runoff than less compacted soils.

These transportational movements lead to deposition and the formation of prograde, or advancing, shorelines, barsspitsbayhead beaches a bayhead beach is formed between two headlandsand barrier beaches a barrier beach parallels the shore.

Runoff from agricultural land is greatest during spring months when the soils are typically saturated, snow is melting and vegetative cover is minimal.

A major factor for preventing soil erosion is educating more and more people who work with the land on why it is a concern, and what they can do to help reduce it.

It also reduces their food supply, and causes major respiratory issues for them as sediment enters their gills. Rainfall produces four types of soil erosion: splash erosion, sheet erosion, rill erosion, and gully erosion. Wind is a powerful agent of erosion. Aeolian (wind-driven) processes constantly transport dust, sand, and ash from one place to another.

Wind can sometimes blow sand into towering dunes. Erosion is a natural process by which soil and rock material is loosened and transported. Erosion by the action of water, wind, and ice has produced some of the most spectacular landscapes. Soil erosion is the displacement of the upper layer of soil, one form of soil natural process is caused by the dynamic activity of erosive agents, that is, water, ice (glaciers), snow, air (wind), plants, animals, and humans.

May 27,  · Soil Erosion provides complete coverage of the physical causes, processes, and effects of this environmental problem from its origins to planning for future conservation and remediation.

This book focuses on the process of soil erosion and erosion-control principles independent of land Hardcover. Soil erosion is likely the greatest degrader of soil quality by natural forces because when soil is lost by erosion it is generally not replaced by natural weathering processes within a human life time (Alewell et al., ).

Erosion, being a selective process of topsoil removal, leads to significant amounts of soil organic matter loss. By considering two soil states (crusted and aggregated) along with the erosion processes, one can define the temporal soil properties of dry soils that control soil erodibility.

Processes of soil erosion
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Geological Society - Erosion and Transport